Wednesday, March 21, 2007

Indian Independence movement

The Indian Independence Movement incorporated the efforts by Indians to expel the British, French and Portuguese from their trade-posts in the subcontinent; it involved a wide spectrum of Indian political organizations, philosophies, and rebellions between 1857 and India's emergence as an unified nation-state on August 15, 1947.

The initial Indian Rebellion of 1857 was sparked when soldiers serving in the British East India Company's British Army and Indian kingdoms rebelled against the British. After the revolt was crushed, India developed a class of educated elites whose political organising sought Indian political rights and representation while cleverly allowing the British to go ahead with western-style industrial developments. However, increasing public disenchantment with the presence of the British — their involvement in native civil liberties, political rights, and culture as well as alienation from issues facing common Indians — led to an upsurge in revolutionary activities aimed at overthrowing the non-natives, particularly the British.

Sunday, March 11, 2007


Infrared (IR) emission is electromagnetic emission of a wavelength longer than that of noticeable light, but shorter than that of radio waves. The name means "below red", red being the color of detectable light of longest wavelength. Infrared radiation spans three instructions of magnitude and has wavelengths between about 750 nm and 1 mm.

These divisions are suitable by the different human response to this radiation: near infrared is the area closest in wavelength to the radiation detectable by the human eye, mid and far infrared are gradually further from the visible regime. Other definitions follow different physical mechanisms and the newest follow technical reasons .Unfortunately the international standards for these specifications are not currently obtainable.

The boundary between visible and infrared light is not precisely defined. The human eye is markedly less responsive to light above 700 nm wavelength, so longer frequencies make irrelevant contributions to scenes illuminated by common light sources. But particularly strong light (e.g., from lasers, or from bright daylight with the visible light removed by colored gels can be detected up to approximately 780 nm, and will be apparent as red light. The onset of infrared is defined at different values typically between 700 nm and 780 nm.

Monday, March 05, 2007

People mover

A people mover or automated people mover is a completely automated, grade-separated transit system. The term is normally used only to describe systems serving relatively small areas such as airports, downtown districts or theme parks, but is sometimes useful to considerably more complex automated systems. The term does not involve any particular technology, and a people mover may use technologies such as monorail, duorail, automated guide way transit or maglev. Propulsion may engage conventional on-board electric motors, linear motors or cable traction.

A few complex APMs deploy fleets of small vehicles over a track network with off-line stations, and supply near non-stop service to passengers. These taxi-like systems are more frequently referred to as personal rapid transit. Other complex APMs have related characteristics to mass transit systems, and there is no clear cut difference between a complex APM of this type and an automated mass transit system.