Wednesday, December 27, 2006

Single-seater racing

Single-seater racing is perhaps the most well-known form of motorsport outside of North America, with cars designed specifically for high-speed racing. The wheels are not covered, and the cars often have aerofoil wings front and rear to produce downforce and enhance adhesion to the track.
Single-seater races are held on specially designed closed circuits or street circuits closed for the event. Many single-seater races in North America are held on "oval" circuits and the Indy Racing League races mostly on ovals.The best-known variety of single-seater racing, except in North America, is the Formula One World Championship, which involves an annual championship of around 18 races a year featuring major international car and engine manufacturers such as Ferrari, Mercedes-Benz , BMW , Toyota, Honda, and Renault in an ongoing battle of technology and driver skill. Formula One is, by any measure, the most expensive sport in the world, with some teams spending in excess of 300 million US dollars per year. Formula One is widely considered to be the pinnacle of motorsports. In North America, the cars used in the National Championship have traditionally been similar to F1 cars but with more restrictions on technology aimed at helping to control costs.
Other single-seater racing series are the A1 Grand Prix , GP2 , Formula Nippon, Formula Renault 3.5, Formula Three and Formula Atlantic.There are other categories of single-seater racing, including kart racing, which employs a small, low-cost machine on small tracks. Many of today's top drivers started their careers in karts. Formula Ford represents a popular first open-wheel category for up-and-coming drivers stepping up from karts.

Monday, December 18, 2006

Shi'a Islam

Shi'a Islam, also Shi'ite Islam, or Shi'ism is a denomination of the Islamic faith. It is short for Shi'at 'Ali . Even though it is the second largest denomination of Islam, among the hundreds of millions of Muslims Shi'a muslims are considered to be a minority in number. Shi'a Muslims adhere to what they consider to be the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad and the religious guidance of his family whom they refer to as the Ahlul Bayt. Thus, Shi'as consider the first three ruling caliphs of Islam a historic occurrence and not something attached to faith. The singular/adjective form is Shi’i and refers to a follower of the Household of Muhammad and of Ali ibn Abi Talib in particular.
Shi'a islam, like sunni islam, has at times been divided into many branches but today there are just three branches. The best known and the one with most adherents is Twelvers the others being Ismaili and Zaidiyyah. Also Alawites known as Shi'a but because of their idea about Ali this claim is disputed, though mainstream shias denounce for taking an extreme view of Ali, and not actually following the pillars of islam.

Monday, December 11, 2006

Spatial Measurement

The measurement of physical space has long been important. Geometry, the name given to the branch of mathematics which measures spatial relations, was popularised by the ancient Greeks, although earlier societies had developed measuring systems. The International System of Units, is now the most common system of units used in the measuring of space, and is almost universally used within science.
Geography is the branch of science concerned with identifying and describing the Earth, utilising spatial awareness to try and understand why things exist in specific locations. Cartography is the mapping of spaces to allow better navigation, for visualisation purposes and to act as a locational device. Geostatistics apply statistical concepts to collected spatial data in order to create an estimate for unobserved phenomena. Astronomy is the science involved with the observation, explanation and measuring of objects in outer space.

Tuesday, December 05, 2006

In Astronomy

Space refers collectively to the relatively empty parts of the universe. Any area outside the atmospheres of any celestial body can be considered 'space'. Although space is certainly spacious, it is not always empty, but can be filled with matter — say a tenuous plasma. In particular, the boundary between space and Earth's atmosphere is conventionally set at the Karman line.

Wednesday, November 29, 2006

The Black market

The Black market or underground market is the part of economic activity involving illegal dealings, typically the buying and selling of merchandise or services illegally. The goods themselves may be illegal to sell ; the merchandise may be stolen; or the merchandise may be otherwise legal goods sold illicitly to avoid tax payments or licensing requirements, such as cigarettes or unregistered firearms. It is so called because "black economy" or "black market" affairs are conducted outside the law, and so are necessarily conducted "in the dark", out of the sight of the law.
Black markets develop when the state places restrictions on the production or provision of goods and services. These markets prosper, then, when state restrictions are heavy, such as during a period of prohibition, price controls and/or rationing. However, black markets are currently present in any known economy.

Tuesday, November 21, 2006


Smoke is a suspension in air of small particles resulting from incomplete combustion of a fuel. It is commonly an unwanted by-product of fires and fireplaces, but may also be used for pest control , communication , defense or inhalation of tobacco or other drugs. Smoke is sometimes used as a flavouring agent and preservative for various foodstuffs. Smoke is also sometimes a component of internal combustion engine exhaust gas, particularly diesel exhaust.
Smoke inhalation is the primary cause of death in victims of indoor fires. The smoke kills by a combination of thermal damage, poisoning and pulmonary irritation caused by carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide and other combustion products.
Smoke particles are actually an aerosol of solid particles or liquid droplets that are close to the ideal range of sizes for Mie scattering of visible light. This effect has been likened to three-dimensional textured privacy glass—the smoke cloud does not obstruct an image, but thoroughly scrambles it.

Friday, November 10, 2006


Venice is the capital of the region of Veneto and the province of the same name in Italy. Its population is 271,663 . The city is included, with Padua , in the Padua-Venice Metropolitan Area, population 1,600,000.
The city stretches across numerous small islands in the marshy Venetian Lagoon along the Adriatic Sea in northeast Italy. The saltwater lagoon stretches along the shoreline between the mouths of the Po and the Piave Rivers. The population estimate of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of the whole Comune of Venezia; the historic city of Venice inhabitants are around 62,000, while approximately 176,000 people live in Terraferma and 31,000 live in other islands of the lagoon.
The Venetian Republic was a major sea power and a staging area for the Crusades, as well as a very important centre of commerce and art in the Renaissance.

Thursday, November 02, 2006

The International System of Units

The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system. It is the world's most widely used system of units, both in everyday commerce and in science.
The older metric system included several groupings of units. The SI was developed in 1960 from the metre-kilogram-second system, rather than the centimetre-gram-second system which, in turn, had many variants.
The SI introduced several newly named units. The SI is not static; it is a living set of standards where units are created and definitions are modified with international agreement as measurement technology progresses.
With few exceptions, the system is used in every country in the world, and many countries do not maintain official definitions of other units. In the United States, industrial use of SI is increasing, but popular use is still limited. In the United Kingdom, conversion to metric units is official policy but not yet complete. Those countries that still recognize non-SI units have redefined their traditional non-SI units in terms of SI units.

Friday, October 27, 2006


In construction, concrete is a composite building material made from the mixture of aggregate and a cement binder.
The most common form of concrete consists of Portland cement, mineral aggregates and water.
Concrete does not solidify from drying after mixing and placement, the water reacts with the cement in a chemical process known as hydration. This water is absorbed by cement, which hardens, gluing the other components together and eventually creating a stone-like material. When used in the generic sense, this is the material referred to by the word concrete.
Concrete is used more than any other man-made material on the planet. It is used to construct pavements, building structures, foundations, and motorways/roads, overpasses, parking structures, brick/block walls and bases for gates, fences and poles.

Tuesday, October 17, 2006


Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery and ductile member of the poor metal group of chemical elements. In the periodic table it has the symbol Al and atomic number 13.Aluminium is found primarily in the bauxite ore and is remarkable for its resistance to corrosion and its light weight. Aluminium is used in many industries to manufacture a large variety of products and is very important to the world economy. Structural components made from aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and very important in other areas of transportation and building.

Monday, October 09, 2006

Manhattan refers to both the Island of Manhattan and encompasses most of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the five boroughs of New York City. The commercial, financial, and cultural center of the city, Manhattan has many famous landmarks, tourist attractions, museums and universities. It is also home to the headquarters of the United Nations and the seat of city government.
The borough of Manhattan is coterminous with New York County, which is also the most densely populated county in the United States. Postal addresses within the borough are typically designated as "New York, NY."
Manhattan has the largest central business district in the United States and is the site of most of the city's corporate headquarters and the New York Stock Exchange. Although its population is third largest of the five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and it is geographically the smallest, Manhattan is the borough that many visitors most closely associate with New York City.

Friday, September 22, 2006


Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It borders Russia to the northeast, Belarus to
the north, Poland, Slovakia and Hungary to the west, Romania and Moldova to the
southwest and the Black Sea to the south. The famous city of Kiev is the republic's
From at least the ninth century the territory of present-day Ukraine was a centre of
medieval East Slavic civilization that formed the state that became known as Kievan
Rus and for the following several centuries the territory was separated between a
number of regional powers. After a brief period of independence (1917-1921) following
the Russian Revolution of 1917, Ukraine became one of the founding Soviet Republics
in 1922. The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic's territory was enlarged westward after
the Second World War, and again in 1954 with the Crimea transfer. Ukraine became
independent once more after the Soviet Union's collapse in 1991.

Saturday, September 09, 2006


Dance from Old French dancier, perhaps from Frankish generally refers to human movement either used as a form of expression or presented in a social, spiritual or performance setting.Dance is also used to describe methods of non-verbal communication between humans or animals bee dance, mating dance, motion in inanimate objects the leaves danced in the wind, and certain musical forms or genres.Choreography is the art of making dances, and the person who does this is called a choreographer. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement to codified, virtuoso techniques such as ballet. In sports, gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are dance disciplines while Martial arts 'kata' are often compared to dances.

Unlike some early human activities such as the production of stone tools, hunting, cave painting, etc., dance does not leave behind physical artifacts for immediate evidence. Thus, it is impossible to say with any certainty when dance became part of human culture. However, dance has certainly been an important part of ceremony, rituals, celebrations and entertainment since the birth of the earliest human civilizations. Archaeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as gyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures from circa 3300 BC and the Bhimbetka rock-shelter paintings in India.

Friday, September 08, 2006


Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. At its most general, it is literally "the right to copy" an original creation. In most cases, these rights are of limited duration. The symbol for copyright is © (Unicode U+00A9), and in some jurisdictions may alternately be written (c).
Copyright may subsist in a wide range of creative, intellectual, or artistic forms or "works". These include poems, theses, plays, and other literary works, movies, choreographic works,musical compositions, audio recordings, paintings, drawings, sculptures, photographs, software, radio and television broadcasts of live and other performances, and, in some jurisdictions, industrial designs. Copyright is a type of intellectual property; designs or industrial designs may be a separate or overlapping form of intellectual property in some jurisdictions.
Copyright law covers only the particular form or manner in which ideas or information have been manifested, the "form of material expression". It is not designed or intended to cover the actual idea, concepts, facts, styles, or techniques which may be embodied in or represented by the copyright work. Copyright law provides scope for satirical or interpretive works which themselves may be copyrighted. See idea-expression divide.
For example, the copyright which subsists in relation to a Mickey Mouse cartoon prohibits unauthorized parties from distributing copies of the cartoon or creating derivative works which copy or mimic Disney's particular anthropomorphic mouse, but does not prohibit the creation of artistic works about anthropomorphic mice in general, so long as they are sufficiently different to not be imitative of the original. Other laws may impose legal restrictions on reproduction or use where copyright does not - such as trademarks and patents.

Monday, August 21, 2006

Time Reading Program

The Time Reading Program, often abbreviated to TRP, was a book club by Time Magazine from 1961 through 1966. Although Time as a publisher is best known for its magazines and nonfiction series books published under Time-Life, the TRP books followed no specific theme but covered literature both classic and contemporary, as well as nonfiction works and historic topics. The books themselves were chosen by National Book Award judge Max Gissen, perhaps best remembered as Time Magazine's chief book reviewer from 1947 until the TRP began in 1961.
The books themselves were published by Time Inc. and followed a specific format despite their widely varying subject matter. Though considered trade paperbacks, the covers are constructed of a very stiff cardboard material for durability. The books are eight inches tall, or just less than an inch taller than a standard 18-cm mass-market or "rack" paperback. Each book had a wraparound cover with a continuous piece of artwork across both covers and the spine, generally a painting by a contemporary artist commissioned specifically for the TRP edition. The TRP covers attracted a measure of acclaim at the time--according to Time, in 1964 19 TRP covers were cited for awards from The American Institute of Graphic Arts, Commercial Art Magazine, and the Society of Illustrators guild.
Perhaps most importantly for scholars and collectors, most of the TRP books had unique introductions written by various scholars specifically for the TRP edition. In a few cases, the texts have also been revised by the authors to create a definitive edition, although this should not be confused with abridgement, as the goal is not to make the book shorter.
Subscribers to the TRP typically received four books a month, though some books arrived as multi-volume sets. Also included was a small newsletter describing the books and why they were chosen.
Time once again attempted the reading program in the early 80s, with many of the same titles. Today, as with most book club editions, TRP books are generally not of particular value to collectors, with most titles being worth less than five dollars even in excellent condition

Friday, June 30, 2006


An avalanche is a slide of a large snow (or rock) down a mountainside, caused when a buildup of snow is released down a slope, and is one of the major dangers faced in the mountains in winter. An avalanche is an example of a gravity current consisting of granular material.

In an avalanche, lots of material or mixtures of different types of material fall or slide rapidly under the force of gravity. Avalanches are often classified by what they are made of, for example snow, ice, rock or soil avalanches. A mixture of these would be called a debris avalanche.

A large avalanche can run for many miles, and can create massive destruction of the lower forest and anything else in its path. For example, in Montroc, France, in 1999 300,000 cubic metres of snow slid on a 30 degree slope, achieving a speed of 100 km/h. It killed 12 people in their chalets under 100,000 tons of snow, 5 meters deep. The Mayor of Chamonix was convicted of second-degree murder for not evacuating the area, but received a suspended sentence.

During World War I, over 60,000 soldiers died as a result of avalanches during the mountain campaign in the Alps, many of which were caused by artillery fire. However, it is very doubtful avalanches were used as deliberate weapons; more likely they were simply a side benefit to shelling enemy troops, occasionally adding to the toll taken by the artillery. Avalanche prediction is difficult even with detailed weather reports and core samples from the snowpack. It would be almost impossible to predict avalanche conditions many miles behind enemy lines, making it impossible to intentionally target a slope at risk for avalanches. Also, high priority targets received continual shelling and would be unable to build up enough unstable snow to form devastating avalanches, effectively imitating the avalanche prevention programs at ski resorts.